HIV Testing in Clinical Settings
- CDC: Screening for HIV
The CDC recommends that individuals between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care and those with risk factors get tested more frequently. People who may be at high risk for acquiring HIV should be tested at least annually, and include the following:
- People who inject drugs (PWID) and their sex partners
- People who exchange sex for money or needed items
- Sex partners of people living with HIV
- Heterosexual people who themselves or whose sex partners have had more than one sex partner since their most recent HIV test
- People receiving treatment for hepatitis, tuberculosis, or a sexually transmitted infection
- CDC: Benefits of Routine Screening
An estimated 1.1 million people in the United States have HIV, and approximately 1 in 7 (nearly 15%) are not aware of their status. About 40% of new HIV infections are transmitted by people undiagnosed and unaware they have HIV. Diagnosing HIV quickly and linking people to treatment immediately are important steps to reduce new HIV diagnoses.
- CDC: 2018 Quick reference guide: Recommended laboratory HIV testing algorithm for serum or plasma specimens
HIV testing specimens that are reactive on the initial antigen/antibody combination immunoassay and nonreactive or indeterminate on the HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay should be further tested with an FDA-approved HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT) to conclusively interpret the result. This quick reference provides guidance for ordering proper HIV testing and interpreting and reporting results from serum and plasma specimens.
- MATEC: Delivering HIV Test Results (PDF)
Delivering HIV test results is a critical component of the spectrum of HIV care. This guide is a resource for professionals responsible for providing HIV test results to clients.
- HIV Testing
MDH provides funding to local organizations to offer free and confidential rapid HIV antibody testing in clinic and outreach sites. Individuals in need may be directed to these organizations to receive rapid testing services at no cost.