Campylobacter continues to be the most commonly reported bacterial enteric pathogen in Minnesota. There were 834 culture-confirmed Campylobacter cases reported in 2014 (15.4 per 100,000 population). This is an 8% decrease from the 909 cases reported in 2013, and lower than any annual case total reported from 2004 to 2013 (median, 904 cases; range, 843 to 1,009). In 2014, 52% of cases occurred in people who resided outside of the metropolitan area. Of the 789 Campylobacter isolates confirmed and identified to species by MDH, 89% were C. jejuni and 8% were C. coli.
The median age of cases was 34 years (range, 0 days to 95 years). Forty-four percent were between 20 and 49 years of age, and 10% were ≤5 years of age. Fifty-seven percent were male. Fifteen percent of cases were hospitalized; the median length of hospitalization was 4 days. Forty-five percent occurred during June through September. Of the 732 cases for whom data were available, 155 (21%) reported travel outside the United States during the week prior to illness onset. The most common destinations were Europe (n=42), Mexico (n=34), Central or South America or the Caribbean (n=28), and Asia (n=26).
There were two confirmed outbreaks of campylobacteriosis identified in 2014. In May, an outbreak of C. jejuni infections was associated with raw milk from a dairy in St. Louis County; 3 culture-confirmed cases were identified. In September, an outbreak of C. jejuni infections was associated with a restaurant in Hennepin County; 2 culture-confirmed cases were identified. Chicken or chicken livers were suspected to be the vehicle of transmission.
A primary feature of public health importance among Campylobacter cases was the continued presence of Campylobacter isolates resistant to fluoroquinolone antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin), which are commonly used to treat campylobacteriosis. In 2014, the overall proportion of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates tested was 25%. However,
76% of Campylobacter isolates from patients with a history of foreign travel during the week prior to illness onset, regardless of destination, were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Thirteen percent of Campylobacter isolates from patients who acquired the infection domestically were resistant to fluoroquinolones.
In June 2009, a culture-independent diagnostic test (CIDT) became commercially available for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter antigens in stool. In 2014, 395 patients were positive for Campylobacter by a CIDT conducted in a clinical laboratory. However, only 150 (38%) of the specimens were subsequently culture-confirmed, and therefore met the surveillance case definition for inclusion in MDH case count totals.
- For up to date information see>> Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter)
- Full issue>> Annual Summary of Communicable Diseases Reported to the Minnesota Department of Health, 2014